Institute of Martial Arts & Sciences

Promoting professionalism and quality in the martial arts worldwide

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November 10, 2012

The Institute of Martial Arts and Sciences




Copyright ©  The Institute of Martial Arts and Sciences 2012 All Rights Reserved

No Portion of this book may be reproduced in any form, without the written permission of the Institute of Martial Arts and Sciences



The opinions expressed in the papers contained in this book are the views of the individual authors, and do not necessarily represent the views or opinions of the Insitute of Martial Arts and Sciences



Published in 2012

I M A S    P R E S S

ISBN: 978-1-291-09675-0





Table of Contents



Contributors 1
Introduction 7
Using Learning Styles to Instruct Students in Martial Arts 9
Validation of an Integral, Unified and Objective System for the Categorisation of Martial Arts Masters 19
The Longbow: Maker, Saviour and Protector of England 27
Open and Closed Skills in the Martial Arts 55
Cultural Dialogue Through Activity of Martial Arts Institutions 65
The Art and Science of Taijiquan 87
The History of Jiu Jitsu and its Journey to the UK 97
Character Development in the Western Warrior Tradition 107
Martial Arts, the Web, Bushido and Shoshin 117
Non-Ballistic Deadly Force as it Applies to Martial Artists 123
Karatedo as Budo or Sport: Same Essence and Process 135
The Police Martial Art 143
Assessing learning in the martial arts: A level playing field (mat area) for all? 147
Blood Borne Pathogens in Grappling 161
Classical Theory of Kinetic Chain 169
Martial arts training as a method of modifying attitudes and behaviours in the classroom 181
The Spirit of Rei 193
Further Information 201

The Longbow: Maker, Saviour and 

Protector of England

Prof. Jaimie R Lee-Barron PhD FIMAS


The Longbow: Maker, Saviour and 

Protector of England

Key words: Longbow, Archery, Medieval History, Medieval Warfare, Historical Weapons




This article will serve to illustrate the huge influence the traditional English Longbow has exerted upon the historical development of the British Isles and certain other Kingdoms of mainland Europe, and how such a humble weapon, made from basic materials and wielded by common men, changed England from being a weak and vulnerable Kingdom into a strong, respected military power.

It will trace the origins and use of the Longbow from it’s beginnings in the rugged terrain of Wales through it’s accendency in the English Order of Battle, and it’s unsurpassed supremacy upon both domestic and foreign fields of battle, through to its eventual decline in the wars of the 17th century, which were, by now, inevitably coming to be dominated by “powder and shot”, and even touch upon the modern era, and how the rich legacy of Englands “Yeomen Longbowmen” is still felt in our society today.

“And God was with the boy, and he grew up. He lived in the wilderness and became an expert with the bow”. 

Genesis 21:20



The Longbow was the weapon that made England the most powerful military nation in Europe during the middle ages.

Essentially, it is an exremely simple weapon made of readily available materials and wielded by common men. However, it is also a weapon that demands literally years of training in order to use properly upon the field of battle.

Looking at the above statements, we can see that there are a lot of questions as to how all of this happened. What were the circumstances that caused England, above all the other kingdoms of medieval Europe, to become so adept at archery? And to rely so heavily upon Bowmen in the Order of Battle?

In history, there have been a very few weapons that have made any sort of serious impact upon warfare and society as much as the famous English Longbow has.  In middle age England, there were two distinct military elites: The first of these being the heavily armoured, well equipped mounted knight, who was usually of noble birth. This professional warrior caste would be the medieval equivalent of the tank, and would rely heavily upon the “shock and awe” principle.  When not actively engaged in conflict, they would hone their skills through taking part in tournaments of arms, war-games and fighting duels.

The  second was the Bowman, lightly armoured and equipped and highly mobile, who was usually a commoner. These archers were like a cross between machine -guns and artillery of the middle ages, as they could bring a mass of concentrated fire to bear upon an enemy, but they could also be employed in the now classic “light infantry” roles such as skirmishers and snipers when and if called upon to do so.

Each of these military elites were subject to very strict training regimes from early childhood and each were to prove themselves extremely formidable upon the field of valour, but it would eventually prove to be the Longbowmen who would exert the most influence upon the outcomes of several pivotal encounters, so affecting the development of England, as well as several other European nations, and preserving and protecting her interests both at home and abroad.



Blood Borne Pathogens 

in Grappling

Prof. Brian Jones PhD FIMAS


Blood Borne Pathogens 

in Grappling

Key words: health and safety, pathogens, biology, martial arts, ethics



Health and Safety is always of vital importance in any physical activity, and even more so in certain combat sports where there is a huge amount of physical contact involved.

This short article has been written in order to highlight a particular area of risk that can sometimes go completely un-noticed, namely: Blood borne pathogens, and what instructors and competitiors can do by way of precaution/prevention and minimisation of these risks.



Grappling is a contact sport and can occasionally result in cuts or other bleeding injuries. Even though striking is not allowed, accidental elbows or head-butts may cut the skin of the face or bloody the nose. Cuts may also occur due to untrimmed finger or toenails and bleeding abrasions are possible from mat burn or contact with Velcro straps on clothing and equipment. The presence of blood and open wounds always presents a risk of blood borne disease (2,5,6,7).

The two most serious infections are caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV). Research shows that the likelihood of getting these diseases through grappling is low, but the severity of their health consequences means that all possible safety precautions should be taken (2,6). Everyone involved with grappling from the athletes to the tournament officials should be aware of the risk posed by blood and know how to deal with the situation when it arises.

Another potential risk of blood borne pathogens is from sharing of needles. Use of anabolic steroids or other drugs, draining cauliflower ear (auricular hematoma), and intravenous (IV) rehydration after cutting weight are often performed by grapplers without medical supervision. HIV and hepatitis may be transmitted if athletes share needles used in these procedures.



HIV is the virus responsible for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV infection damages the immune system and allows many other types of infections to occur. The resulting collection of symptoms is known as AIDS. Most people with HIV eventually develop AIDS but the virus may be carried for many years before symptoms develop and during this time it may be passed on to others.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that an estimated 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 persons in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS as of 2005 and that there are as many as 40,000 new cases each year. Most people acquire the disease through sexual contact or sharing needles for intravenous drug use. These account for 99% of the new cases with the remainder due to blood transfusions, accidental needle sticks, and blood exposure from injury. HIV cannot live long outside the body so there is a low risk of transmission from bleeding injuries. To date there are no confirmed reports of infection due to sports however, one case has been reported in which the virus was transmitted during a bloody street fight (9).


Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV)

Hepatitis B and C result from infection by the hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV). Hepatitis affects the liver and may be acute (short-term) or chronic (persistent). Acute infections typically last several weeks and can range in severity from mild flu-like symptoms to complete liver failure. Symptoms commonly seen include fever, nausea, diarrhea, aches, yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), and dark urine. Chronic infections often require a …….



Classical Theory of 

Kinetic Chain

Yun Choi Yeung FIFL FIMAS

Classical Theory of 

Kinetic Chain

Key words: kinetics, core stability, Xingyiquan, Taijiquan, rotational stretch, reverse punch


The concept of kinetic chain has been practiced in rehabilitation, performance enhancement and has been the focus of numerous research studies. The classical writings of Xingyiquan and Taijiquan are similar in their ideas of the non-concentric framework (Yeung, 2012).

The aim of this article is to analyse the classical theory with focus on muscular activities and  the range of motion of joints, and to establish it as a useful tool for evaluation. The classical theory of kinetic chain emphasizes the movement of the torso and its generation of power to the limbs which enables the co-ordination of all the different joints from ankle to hand. Different versions of the reverse punch are discussed in the light of the classical kinetic chain but there are many more complex movements which need further elaboration.

It is currently possible to demarcate between non-concentric movement and movement combined with concentric contraction of muscles, but this is limited to non-concentric movement.  Therefore the generalisation of the classical theory is open to further validation and improvement.

The concept of kinetic chain comes from linkage analysis in mechanical engineering, imagine the human body represented by a chain of rigid segments that are connected by a series of joints.  It was Steindler (1955) who adapted this “Mechanical Engineering” concept to the human body and proposed that each limb could act as a portion of a rigid chain within a whole system connected together by joints.  He considered that system to be closed when the distal extremity is fixed to a steady support in which the movement of one joint would ….


The Spirit

of Rei

Rev. Toby Humphry MA FIMAS


The Spirit

of Rei

Key words: martial arts, philosophy, tradition, spirituality

Short Article

Rei is to do with etiquette, but goes beyond external nicities.  The kanji for rei quite clearly shows that it also has a spiritual dimension.  However this is two-edged in that it can cultivate the soul, or demean it.

In the dojo, rei affects much of what goes on in it and beyond its confines.  Whether as a particular act of respect or as a prevailing attitude, rei is like that which is found in places of worship. Indeed, what happens in both places could be described as “liturgy”

Liturgy has a function of carrying the burden of tradition and binding the group together, while hopefully being satisfying, uplifting, meaningful and attractive.

The dojo has retained some of the baggage from its origins as a hall in a Buddhist monastery, and various sects of Buddhism have influenced different schools and styles of martial arts.  In the west, certain Judeo-Christian ideals and aspirations have found their way in, so that there is a mix of cultures and ideologies being united in rei.

Even before the bugeisha enters the training area, rei is playing its part, personal appearance and condition are pertinent to rei, as they impinge on other people and the activity undertaken.  This includes the state of the keikogi; a disheveled garment belonging to either a teacher or student hardly inspires confidence.

Thus, the way a keikogi is kept when not in use is just as much an avenue for expressing rei. Equally, the way a keikogi is donned is also a matter for care.  Traditionally, the bugeisha did not want to be caught with their trousers down, so their trousers were the last item to be changed when donning the keikogi;  part of rei was a matter of self-preservation as well as self-respect. (4)